Westphalia: Church Politics Adjusts Boundaries, Then Everything Changes
In 1648, the Treaty of Westphalia created the modern nation-state.
The Articles were hastily put together to avoid describing the Continental Army as rebels. They served as a simple loose way to fight a revolution when we weren't unanimous about fighting for permanent Independence. Over time we tended more toward Independence, but it always was far from unanimous. There were those who fled to Canada and the South. How would returning Tories feel about it? For Thomas Jefferson, it was Independence from Great Britain all right, but was it to be like England, or like France?
Originally published: Monday, August 12, 2019; most-recently modified: Wednesday, August 14, 2019