Westphalia: Church Politics Adjusts Boundaries, Then Everything Changes
In 1648, the Treaty of Westphalia created the modern nation-state.
This is really a two-volume series, masquerading as four. It was a convenience to put commentary before and after the central two subjects: The Rise of America and the threatening Rise of China. Between them is found the attempt of Europe to choose, haunted by its past while confused about what might follow it. All of this was written after the author reached the age of ninety; hoping to live long enough to complete the thought.
One central character is George Washington, a figure in all four systems of governance, seldom recognizing a preference beyond the system in vogue to the one it was replacing.
Originally published: Wednesday, June 05, 2019; most-recently modified: Wednesday, August 14, 2019